Projects and Programme
Number of projects and programmes can be find in the today’s environment. Constructing a bridge can be a new project. Manufacturing is not a project. Having clear idea on the definition may help you to identify the project correctly. There are different strategies for managing projects and programmes.
What is a Project
Projects are all about transformation. It has a start and a finish. The result of the project is unique product or service.
Construction of High-rise building – There is a project start date and end date. Final product of the project is the building
Developing new mobile phone – There is a start date and end date for the project. The project team may contain electronic engineers, software developers and product designers. Final product of the project is new mobile phone.
Mobile phone manufacturing is not a project, because it does not have a start date or end date and unique product at the end.
Why a Project
The above figure shows why you want to have a project. It can be,
- Regulatory, Legal or Social Requirement
Some projects may arise as a result of regulatory, legal decision or as social requirement. The stakeholders of the projects are different from project to project. They want to have such a project.
Government decided to develop automated color light system to reduce the traffic congestion. Developing automated color light system is a project. This project is created as a result of the government decision.
Government decide to close the boundaries of the state using brick wall. Constructing brick boundary wall is a project.
Court order to recycle the garbage in town area. Construction of garbage recycle center is a project. This project is started as a result of the court order.
- Satisfy Stakeholder Request
Sometime projects are created to satisfy the stakeholder requirements. Here the beneficial team of the project require the project.
One CEO wants to have a seminar room for his company. Building a seminar room is a project.
Company staff has requested to install MVAC machines for their company. Installing MVAC system is a project.
- Create, Improve or Fix products
Fixing some disputes and improving the product is not a part of manufacturing process. It can be taken as a separate project. The requirement for the project is generated as a result of the existing product.
Company A has developed a motor vehicle. This vehicle has a problem in brake system, when the speed reach 100 mph. Developing new system or fixing the problem is a project.
Society request a wrist watch with calling, connecting internet and capturing photographs facilities. Developing this type of wrist watch is also a project.
- Implement Strategy
Strategies are implemented to make a difference, which contribute the goodness of the company. These strategies may increase the efficiency, reduce the cost and increase the profit or job satisfaction of the employees.
Implementing new ERP system in the company is a project.
Projects goals must be SMART to success the project. How the project goal can be SMART is shown in the figure below.
The Project Goals must be specific to the project. The progress of the project can be measurable. If the project progress can’t measure, no one can get an idea about present status and time to complete the project. The project goals must be attainable and there must be a time frame to attain them.
Consider construction of a four story building. The project goals may be
- Completion of first floor on 01st January 2021
- Completion of second floor on 01st March 2021
- Completion of third floor on 01st May 2021
- Completion of fourth floor on 01st July 2021
What is Project Management
Managing the project is the most important part. This is more close to our life because all the time we have to manage projects. Some of them are personal works. You have to balance the three constraints to success in project management. Three constraints are schedule, cost and scope.
If the project schedule (time) increase, project team salary and other cost will increase. This will increase the cost and reduce the profit of the company.
If the scope of the project change, the project team has to re-plan and arrange the resources. This may increase the time and the cost of the project.
Projects vs. Operations
Once the project is completed, it is transformed to an operation. Both projects and operation are performed by people, constrained by limited resources and contain phases of planning, executing and controlling.
The following tables shows the differences of projects and operations.
Project Life Cycle
Project managers divide the project into multiple stages to manage the projects easily. Collectively these stages are known as project life cycle. Those stages depends on the project. Stages in construction projects are not similar to ICT projects.
There are five main type of project life cycles
- Predictive life cycle
Scope, time and the costs are determined in the early stage of the life cycle. This is also called “Waterfall life cycle”
- Iterative life cycle
Scope is defined early in the life cycle. Time and the cost estimates are modified with the understanding of the project.
- Incremental life cycle
This is not applicable for all industries. Deliverable is produced through a serious of iterations. Deliverable considered complete after the final iteration.
- Adaptive life cycle
This is good for the projects which are governed by knowledge. Scope is defined and approved before start of an iteration.
- A hybrid life cycle
Combination of predictive and adaptive life cycle.